• http://powerofyouth.com teen-focused website aimed at sharing the real dangers of drinking underage and how to stand strong in their commitment of no drinking before the age of 21.

    Facts About Underage Drinking
    Alcohol Dependence or Abuse and Age at First Use

    Approximately 10% of 9- to 10-year-olds have started drinking.

     

    Nearly one-third of youth begin drinking before age 13.

     

    Persons reporting first use of alcohol before age 15 are more than 5

     

    times as likely to report past-year alcohol dependence or abuse than

    persons who first used alcohol at age 21 or older (16 vs. 3%).

     

    2 Underage Drinking Among College Students

    An estimated 1,700 college students between the ages of 18 and 24

     

    die each year from alcohol-related unintentional injuries, including

    motor vehicle crashes. Approximately 600,000 students are

    unintentionally injured while under the influence of alcohol.

     

    Approximately 700,000 students are assaulted by other students

     

    who have been drinking.

     

    3 About 100,000 students are victims of alcohol-related sexual assault

     

    or date rape.

     

    Young adults aged 18 to 22 enrolled full-time in college were

     

    more likely than their peers not enrolled full-time (i.e., part-time

    college students and persons not currently enrolled in college)

    to use alcohol in the past month, binge drink, or drink heavily.

    Past-month alcohol use was reported by 66.4% of full-time college

    students compared with 54.1% of persons aged 18 to 22 who

    were not enrolled full-time. Binge and heavy-use rates for college

    students were 45.5 and 19.0%, respectively, compared with 38.4

    and 13.3%, respectively, for 18- to 22-year-olds not enrolled full

    time in college.

     

    4 Binge Drinking Among Underage Youth

    In 2006, about 10.8 million persons aged 12 to 20 (28.3% of

     

    this age group) reported drinking alcohol in the past month.

    Approximately 7.2 million (19.0%) were binge drinkers, and 2.4

    million (6.2%) were heavy drinkers. These figures have remained

    essentially the same since the 2002 survey.

     

    When youth drink, they tend to drink intensively, often consuming

     

    four to five drinks at one time. Monitoring The Future (MTF) data

    show that 11% of 8th graders, 22% of 10th graders, and 29% of

    12th graders had engaged in heavy episodic—or binge—drinking

    within the past 2 weeks. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse

    and Alcoholism (NIAAA) defines binge drinking as a pattern of

    drinking alcohol that brings blood alcohol concentration [BAC] to

    .08 grams or above. For the typical adult, this pattern corresponds

    to consuming five or more drinks for men, or four or more drinks

    for women, in about 2 hours.

     

    Nationwide, 25.5% of students had had more than 5 drinks of

     

    alcohol in a row (i.e., within a couple of hours) on more than 1 of

    the 30 days preceding the survey (i.e., heavy episodic drinking).

     

    7 Alcohol Use and Adolescent Development

    Alcohol is the drug of choice among America’s adolescents, used by

     

    more young people than tobacco or illicit drugs.

     

    Children of alcoholics (COAs) are between 4 and 10 times more

     

    likely to become alcoholics than children from families with no

    alcoholic adults. COAs are at elevated risk for earlier onset of

    drinking and earlier progression into drinking problems.

     

    Among 8th graders, 30-day prevalence of alcohol use has declined

     

    by more than one-third since its peak level in 1996. Among 10th

    and 12th graders, the proportional declines from recent peaks have

    been smaller—one-sixth among 10th graders since 2000 and oneseventh

    among 12th graders since 1997.

     

    10 In 2006, the prevalence of being drunk at least once in the prior

     

    month stands at 6% of 8th graders, 19% of 10th graders, and

    30% of 12th graders.

     

    11 Past 30-day prevalence of the use of flavored alcoholic beverages

     

    (sometimes called “alcopops” or “malternatives”) was at slightly

    lower levels in 2006 in all grades than in 2005, having declined by

    1.1 percentage points among 8th graders and 3.7 percentage points

    among 12th graders.

     

    12 Health and Safety Risks of Underage Drinking

    Underage drinking is a risk factor for heavy drinking later in life,

     

    and continued heavy use of alcohol leads to increased risk across

    the lifespan for acute consequences and for medical problems such

    as cancers of the oral cavity, larynx, pharynx, and esophagus; liver

    cirrhosis; pancreatitis; and hemorrhagic stroke.

     

    13 Underage drinking is a leading contributor to death from injuries,

     

    which are the main cause of death for people under age 21.

    Annually, about 5,000 people under age 21 die from alcoholrelated

    injuries involving underage drinking. About 1,900 (38%) of

    the 5,000 deaths involve motor vehicle crashes, about 1,600 (32%)

    result from homicides, and about 300 (6%) result from suicides.

     

    14 Youth who report drinking before the age of 15 are more likely

     

    than those who begin drinking later in life to have other substance

    abuse problems during adolescence; to engage in risky sexual

    behavior; and to be involved in car crashes, unintentional injuries,

    and physical fights after drinking, both during adolescence and in

    adulthood.

     

    15 Underage drinking plays a significant role in risky sexual behavior,

     

    including unwanted, unintended, and unprotected sexual activity,

    and sex with multiple partners. Such behavior increases the risk

    for unplanned pregnancy and for contracting sexually transmitted

    diseases (STDs), including infection with HIV/AIDS.

     

    16 Among the 33.9% of currently sexually active students nationwide,

     

    23.3% had drunk alcohol or used drugs before their last incidence

    of sexual intercourse.

     

    17 National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence, Inc.

    244 East 58th Street, 4th Floor, New York, NY 10022

    phone: 212/269-7797 fax: 212/269-7510

    email: national@ncadd.org http://www.ncadd.org

    HOPE LINE: 800/NCA-CALL (24-hour Affiliate referral)

    Underage alcohol use increases the risk of physical and sexual

     

    assault, academic failure, illicit drug use, and tobacco use; and can

    cause a range of physical consequences, from hangovers to death

    from alcohol poisoning. It can cause alterations in the structure and

    function of the developing brain, which continues to mature into

    the mid- to late-twenties, and may have consequences reaching far

    beyond adolescence.

     

    18 About 45% of people who die in crashes involving a drinking

     

    driver under the age of 21 are people other than the driver.

     

    19 An estimated 7.9% of 16- or 17-year-olds, 19.7% of 18- to

     

    20-year-olds, and 27.3% of 21- to 25-year-olds reported driving

    under the influence of alcohol in the past year.

     

    20 Cost of Underage Drinking

    The economic cost of underage drinking is estimated to be nearly

     

    $62 billion. Underage drinking accounted for at least 16% of

    alcohol sales in 2001.

     

    21 Underage Drinking by Gender and Ethnic Origin

    Among persons aged 12 to 20, past-month alcohol-use rates

     

    were 18.6% among blacks, 19.7% among Asians, 25.3% among

    Hispanics, 27.5% among those reporting two or more races,

    31.3% among American Indians or Alaska Natives, and

    32.3% among whites. The 2006 rate for American Indians or

    Alaska Natives is higher than the 2005 rate of 21.7%.

     

    22 Among youths aged 12 to 17 in 2006, Asians and blacks had the

     

    lowest rates of past-month alcohol use. Only 7.6% of Asian youths

    and 10.5% of black youths were current drinkers, while 15.3%

    of Hispanic youths, 16.2% of those reporting two or more races,

    19.2% of white youths, and 20.5% of American Indian or Alaska

    Native youths were current drinkers.

     

    23 Among persons aged 12 to 20, binge drinking was reported by

     

    23.6% of American Indians or Alaska Natives, 22.7% of whites,

    20.7% of persons reporting two or more races, and 16.5% of

    Hispanics, but only by 11.8% of Asians and 8.6% of blacks. The

    2006 rate among Asians is higher than the 2005 rate of 7.4%.

     

    24 By age 15, approximately 50% of boys and girls have had a whole

     

    drink of alcohol; by age 21, approximately 90% have done so.

     

    25 More males than females aged 12 to 20 reported current alcohol

     

    use (29.2 vs. 27.4%, respectively), binge drinking (21.3 vs. 16.5%),

    and heavy drinking (7.9 vs. 4.3%) in 2006.

     

    26 What Is NCADD?

    The National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence, Inc.

    (NCADD), founded in 1944, is a voluntary health organization.

    Through our National Network of Affiliates, NCADD provides

    education, prevention, training, information, referral, intervention,

    treatment, and recovery support services. NCADD advocates

    for education, prevention, treatment, research, and the rights of

    persons and families affected by the disease of alcoholism and drug

    dependence.

    Sources

    1 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the

    Surgeon General. March 2007.

    The Surgeon General’s Call to Action

     

    To Prevent and Reduce Underage Drinking

     

    , p. 6. Retrieved from

     

    www.surgeongeneral.gov/topics/underagedrinking/calltoaction.pdf.

    2 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse

    and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied

    Studies. October 22, 2004. The NSDUH Report, Alcohol dependence

    or abuse and age at first use. Retrieved from

    www.oas.samhsa.gov/2k4/ageDependence/ageDependence.htm.

    3 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the

    Surgeon General. March 2007.

     

    The Surgeon General’s Call to Action

     

    To Prevent and Reduce Underage Drinking

     

    , p. 13. Retrieved from

     

    www.surgeongeneral.gov/topics/underagedrinking/calltoaction.pdf.

    4 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse

    and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied

    Studies. 2007. Results from the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use

    and Health: National Findings. Retrieved from

    http://oas.samhsa.gov/NSDUH/2k6NSDUH/2k6results.cfm#Ch3.

    5 Ibid.

    6 Ibid.

    7 Ibid.

    8 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the

    Surgeon General. March 2007.

     

    The Surgeon General’s Call to Action

     

    To Prevent and Reduce Underage Drinking

     

    , p. 1. Retrieved from

     

    www.surgeongeneral.gov/topics/underagedrinking/calltoaction.pdf.

    9 Ibid., pp. 13-14

    10 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes

    of Health, National Institute on Drug Abuse. 2006 Monitoring the

    Future Survey. Retrieved from

    www.monitoringthefuture.org/pubs/monographs/overview2006.pdf.

    11 Ibid.

    12 Ibid.

    13 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the

    Surgeon General. March 2007.

     

    The Surgeon General’s Call to Action

     

    To Prevent and Reduce Underage Drinking

     

    , p. 11. Retrieved from

     

    www.surgeongeneral.gov/topics/underagedrinking/calltoaction.pdf.

    14 Ibid., p. 10.

    15 Ibid., p. 12.

    16 Ibid., p. 10.

    17 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease

    Control and Prevention. 2006. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—

    United States, 2005. Retrieved from

    www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/SS/SS5505.pdf.

    18 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the

    Surgeon General. March 2007.

     

    The Surgeon General’s Call to Action

     

    To Prevent and Reduce Underage Drinking

     

    , p. 11. Retrieved from

     

    www.surgeongeneral.gov/topics/underagedrinking/calltoaction.pdf.

    19 Ibid., p. 11

    20 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse

    and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied

    Studies. 2007. Results from the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use

    and Health: National Findings. Retrieved from

    http://oas.samhsa.gov/NSDUH/2k6NSDUH/2k6results.cfm#Ch3.

    21 Miller, T. R.; Levy, D. T.; Spicer, R. S.; and Taylor, D. M. 2006.

    Abstract: Societal costs of underage drinking.

     

    Journal of Studies on

     

    Alcohol, 67

     

    , issue 4, pgs. 519-528. Retrieved from

     

    www.pire.org/detail2.asp?core=38160&cms=50.

    22 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse

    and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied

    Studies. 2007. Results from the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use

    and Health: National Findings. Retrieved from

    http://oas.samhsa.gov/NSDUH/2k6NSDUH/2k6results.cfm#Ch3.

    23 Ibid.

    24 Ibid.

    25 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the

    Surgeon General. March 2007.

     

    The Surgeon General’s Call to Action

     

    To Prevent and Reduce Underage Drinking

     

    , p. 3. Retrieved from

     

    www.surgeongeneral.gov/topics/underagedrinking/calltoaction.pdf.

    26 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse

    and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied

    Studies. 2007. Results from the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use

    and Health: National Findings. Retrieved from

    http://oas.samhsa.gov/NSDUH/2k6NSDUH/2k6results.cfm#Ch3.